Grape Vine Spacing
Spacing between rows. This is the easy one to explain because it really has nothing to do with the vine growth itself. The main factors are more about maneuverability, sunshine exposure, and air flow. The idea is to make sure that you have enough room to work your plants comfortably. 5'-6' between rows is recommended if you are working the plants by hand. Use 5' if you have a smaller area and you need to take full advantage of your available land.
Based on a 6' tall trellis system, using a simple VPS (Vertical Positioning System), anything below 5' between rows can cause one row to shade the next and also cause poor air circulation.
Good air flow through the canopy helps control fungus disease. If possible keep the distance between rows minimum 6'. If you intend to drive a tractor, riding mower or any other vehicle between the rolls you will need to space the rows at least 3-4' wider than the width of the vehicle so that you can operate the vehicle effectively and safely.
Spacing between plants. Think about the region you live in, what your climate is, what your soil mixture is and what grape variety you intend to plant. Basically how vigorous will your vine will be regarding those factors?
If for instance you live in high soil fertility, deep clay with lots of organic matter and lots of rainfall in a hot climate, then you are likely to need more spacing between your vine rows. Approximately 6-8' apart.
However, if you have poorer soils and you are located in a dry region much less distance maybe more appropriate. 4'-6' spacing might be ideal.
The planting hole should be about 8" wide by 8-12" deep. If you have a grafted vine then make sure the graft union is at least 2-4" above ground level. The root system should fit comfortably in the hole.
Naturally, what direction that is optimum for your rows will depend on your particular available site area and the region you live in. If you can, run your rows North and South for maximum sunlight capture. And if you are in a warmer climate you may consider slightly angling them Southwest to Northeast to reduce intensity.
Most importantly, plant your vines in rows for best airflow and maximum sunlight.
Take time to understand the growth habits of the particular grape variety you have chosen. This is where local advice can help. Grapes are grown in almost all areas of the world now where region specific knowledge and experience is usually readily available.
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The Backyard Vintner: An Enthusiast's Guide to Growing Grapes and Making Wine at Home